Bael, scientifically known as Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa is a tree native to India that is widely distributed in various regions of the world. It is commonly referred to as a wood apple or stone apple. Aegle marmelos is a deciduous tree that thrives well in subtropical areas and can grow up to a medium to large size. It is found in dry forests of both plain and hilly areas, with an altitude of up to 1200 meters above sea level. The tree can adapt to various habitats, making it versatile.
The therapeutic benefits of Aegle marmelos have been recognized since prehistoric times. Different parts of the tree, such as the stem, bark, root, leaves, fruits, and seeds, are widely used in traditional medicine. The tree has been utilized in the traditional system of medicine to heal wounds, and cure digestive disorders, ulcers, hypertension, respiratory infections, dysentery, diarrhea, constipation, and many other ailments.
Studies have shown that Aegle marmelos possesses several biological activities, such as antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, diuretic, and radioprotective properties. The tree exhibits strong antioxidant properties due to the presence of many phytochemicals, including marmesinin, eugenol, and other phenolics.
Animal models have demonstrated that Aegle marmelos extract is non-toxic and has no fatal consequences when consumed at a maximum dose of 250 mg/kg body weight.
In conclusion, Aegle marmelos is a versatile tree with significant therapeutic properties that have been recognized since ancient times. Its various parts are used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments. Its strong antioxidant properties and other biological activities make it a valuable source of medicine.